Say you have 4 requirements r1, r2, r3 and r4. r1 is dependant on r4, r3 is dependant on r2.
When you have a change request or a functionality change or a defect occurred in r1, As r1 is dependant on r4, their may or may not be an impact on the functionality of r4 as they both are interdependant. So whenever a functional change happens on a requirement which is dependant on the another requirement, analysing the other requirement r4 w.r.t the change request taken up for r1 would be called as Impact analysis.
Basically through impact analysis you make sure that any changes are being made to system(or program) is going to impact any other systems or components. So before making changes you are completely aware about any dependency or impact on subsequent systems or programs.
Impact analysis means before changing the system to meet new requirement we need to identify which components(programs,jobs,copybook etc) will be impacted. Based on impact analysis we can estimate the time required to do the changes.
Basically impact analysis is figuring /finding out all the impacted components(programs, copybooks, procedures, files, sort cards)for the specific requirement and analysing what are the changes needs to be done for all the impacted components pertaing to specific requirement so that when we depoly product works according to the requirement after integrating all the impacted components.